The correlation between WGCTA scores and sex in all MIU students was -.26; men performed better. The correlation between WGCTA scores and sex varied with class. While the correlation was -.29 among MIU freshmen the correlation was exactly zero in seniors. Senior men and women were virtually equal in CT while freshmen men were significantly higher than the freshmen women in CT. The mean scores of all MIU men were significantly higher than the mean scores for MIU women (t=3.15, df=99) supporting Simon and Ward's (1974) finding.Thus the thirteenth hypothesis was rejected.

The fourteenth hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference between males and females in open-mindedness. This hypothesis was tested through a correlation between sex and RADS scores, and a comparison of male and female mean scores using a t-test. This hypothesis was confirmed as no differences between the sexes in open-mindedness were found through either method.

The fifteenth hypothesis was that there would be no difference between males and females in EEG phase coherence.  This hypothesis was tested in the same manner as the fourteenth.  Computing a correlation coefficient between sex and five EEG coherence measures showed the females to be slightly higher than males on all EEG measures. A comparison of male and female means in frontal alpha, frontal theta, left alpha, right alpha, and occipital alpha showed these differences to be non-significant.


The final step in the analysis of data was to determine the unique factors which accounted for the major portions of the variance in the correlation matrix of fourteen variables.  This was accomplished using the BIOMED statistical package of programs on MIU's PDP-11 computer.

Eigenvalues. or uniqueness coefficients on an unrotated factor loading pattern revealed four principal components.  The unrotated factors responsible for major portions of the variance in the matrix were determined to be:

1) a critical thinking factor combined with lack of EEG frontal alpha and theta coherence,

2) an EEG phase coherence factor combining  all measures, frontal, lateral, and occipital,

3) a Dogmatism, class, frontal theta. and lack of left and right alpha coherence factor,

4) a Dogmatism, frontal alpha, lack of  occipital alpha, lack of inference ability, and lack of ability to recognize assumptions factor.

The factor loadings pattern was then rotated to maximize the main factors and minimize those factors which had eigenvalues close to zero. Kaiser's rule was used--if a factor has an eigenvalue of less than one, it will be generally uninterpretable and should be rejected prior to rotation.  The varimax rotation of the correlational matrix yielded four more refined factors (See Table 4):


1) a critical thinking ability and class factor,

2) a frontal alpha, frontal theta, and occipital alpha factor,

3) a left and right alpha factor, and

4) an ability to recognize unstated assumptions, Inference, and
open-mindedness factor.

From this factor analysis, it was found that critical thinking and class act as a single factor, which agrees with the finding that CT and class were positively correlated (r=.41).  This indicates that older, more educated students have greater critical thinking abilities, and suggests a progressive influence of MIU's curriculum. It is interesting to note that CT and class are independent from any of the EEG measurements, and from open-mindedness.

It appears that the three bilateral EEG  measurements act as one factor, while the two homolateral EEG measurements act as another factor. This agrees with the finding that these were two groups of highly correlated variables, and suggests the existence of two fundamental and directionally perpendicular coherence factors.

It appears from the finding that ability to recognize unwarranted assumptions, and open-mindedness comprise one factor, that they may be tapping similar mental pathways.  This also indicates that a major aspect of dogmatic or closed-minded thinking is the tendency to allow assumptions to pass without notice and challenge.


Table 4

Varimax Rotation .
Factor Loadings Pattern

Variables Factor 1:
Watson (CT)
Factor 2:
Factor 3:
Lateral EEG
Factor 4:
Recognition of
Assumptions, Inference & Open-Mindedness
Class .623 .401 -.223 -.064
Sex -.139 .289 .096 .012
Inference .452 .088 -.182 .598
Recognition of Assumptions .345 .002 .101 .812
Deduction .778 -.210 -.149 .092
Interpretation .846 -.182 .160 .059
Evaluation .819 -.234 .073 -.066
Watson (CT) .915 -.158 .003 .351
Rokeach (OM) .257 .142 -.166 -.783
Frontal alpha -.063 .808 .266 -.156
Frontal theta -.031 .879 .015 -.169
Left alpha .012 .152 .919 .140
Right alpha -.020 .082 .919 -.010
Occipital alpha -.197 .699 -.112 .306
Uniqueness coefficients      
Eigenvalues 3.669 2.373 1.955 1.941

Factor loading values greater than .500 are underlined for clarity

Chapter 5: Other findings

An item analysis of the Rokeach Adult  Dogmatism Scale revealed some inconsistencies, and possible shortcomings of the RADS. Both students high in open-mindedness, and low in open-mindedness tended to agree with items #15 and #17 of the RADS:

15) While I don't like to admit this even to myself, my secret ambition is to become a great man, like Einstein, or Beethoven, or Shakespeare.

17) If given the chance I would do something of great benefit to the world.

According to Rokeach, agreement with these statements would be an indication of dogmatism.  However, their predictive validity of the total RADS score was very low. These statements may not necessarily be dogmatic statements. 

The students had many comments about the RADS which they included on their answer sheets. Some responses were:

"Who wrote these questions?”
"Who made this test? Not you I hope.“
"Is this a test for insecurity?'
"I feel sorry for people who‘d feel like that."

The RADS evoked laughter from two seniors who found the statements "ridiculous'. One girl found the RADS "too negative" to complete.

An analysis of the WGCTA found that MIU seniors and freshmen did best on the subtest of ability to recognize unstated assumptions.


As the MIU students performed close to, or better, than average in critical thinking ability, another pilot study in belief systems was performed. The WGCTA is an indicator of how logically a person arrives at what he believes, and the RADS is an indicator of how tolerant a person is of other beliefs. A questionnaire was designed by the experimenter to determine what type of things, specifically, the MIU students believe in.

The test was called the Human Potential Questionaire (HPQ), which consists of 13 potential human abilities. The subjects are asked to state true or false whether they believe these abilities are 1) possible 2)their personal experience, and 3) important abilities to achieve. A sample HPQ is found in the Appendix of this paper.

The HPQ was administered to 14 MIU freshmen and 14 MIU upperclassmen (sophomores, juniors, and seniors). The subjects were chosen after classes among volunteers, attempting to sample as close to randomly as possible.  The test was short enough that all students who were asked to fill it out did so willingly.

The results of the questionnaire indicate that MIU freshmen and seniors have a very optimistic view of man's full potential.  Among the abilities they believed were possible for man to achieve were: levitation by mere intention, ability to know the future, become immortal, and see objects hidden from view.

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