rules together foster the purest unfoldment of knowledge...Each step of deduction must be performed explicitly and without hidden assumptions, that is, fully consciously“ (MIU Catalogue, 1981). Yet the TM—Sidhi program also includes things which may strike most people as illogical--the development of extraordinary human abilities such as levitation. ”The TM-Sidhi technique of 'flying' is an extraordinary new technology for the generation of coherence" (MIU Catalogue, 1981).

A further consideration to be investigated is to assess the critical thinking ability with a view towards “assessing the likelihood of gullible thinking patterns in MIU students.

This study should serve as a first step in isolating the effect of the TM program as a variable in developing critical thinking and open—mindedness. Inferences from the data would pertain only to the effect of the MIU curriculum and educational environment as a whole. Generalizations to other student populations would be limited because students who elect to attend MIU, a unique university. may have factors in common which might influence their measures in critical thinking. open—mindedness, and EEG coherence.


This research paper is organized in chapters.  The next chapter reviews the related research on critical thinking ability, open-mindedness, and EEG coherence. This research will be evaluated in light of needed areas for research, and how the Science of Creative Intelligence may satisfy these areas. Then, the main hypotheses will be stated.

The third chapter will discuss methods used to test the hypotheses. Methods of obtaining test subjects will be discussed, as well as the limitations of these methods as sources of valid data. Each test instrument will be introduced with reasons why this instrument was chosen over the alternatives. The research design will be described, along with its limitations in accomplishing the purpose of the investigation.

The fourth chapter will address the statistical results for each research hypothesis. Each research question will receive an analysis of the data used to test the question, an interpretation of' the results, and conclusions regarding the hypothesis.

Chapter five will be a summary of those findings not anticipated at the time of forming the hypotheses. These will include related, interesting findings which should be kept separate from the consideration of each formal hypothesis.  The results of a pilot study an estimation of man's potential are presented here.


Chapter six will contain general conclusions, restating what the research project was to accomplish, and how well it succeeded. It will suggest further research projects on the basis of questions which were formulated as a result of the research. It will also provide an indication of the usefulness of the research project, and its implications for the field of education.


Chapter II: Related Literature and Hypotheses

Research on Critical Thinking

The construct of critical thinking ability has many related terms, such as logical reasoning, empiricism, critical intelligence, ratiocination, and abstract reasoning.  The research on critical thinking is also abundant. as are definitions for it. Yet basically,
”critical thinking is the process which brings about changes in
habitual ways of thinking and acting in order to be more responsive to realities” (Organ, 1965, p.6).

Ways to improve critical thinking seem to be lacking. 

The literature reveals that effective participation in the world today requires the ability to think and read critically. There is evidence to support the view that his ability does not develop automatically; rather, it has to be nurtured. This fact has prompted many educators to point to the importance of providing instruction directed to improvement of critical thinking and reading.  A perceptive search of current instructional practices, however, reveals serious shortcomings. (Alston. 1972)

In a survey to isolate the essential  critical reading skills, Roch (1979) found that ability to draw conclusions, reasoning, ability to generalize, draw relationships, and make sound judgment: were considered the most essential of 400 qualities according to 50% of professional authors consulted.

People who are proficient in critical thinking seem to exhibit their potential more with higher quantities of praise, peer to peer interaction, and student participation in the classroom (Smith, 1977). Yet critical thinking ability seems to remain independent of emotional influences as found by Revlin, Leirer, Yopp, and Yopp (1980):


When asked to reason about controversial, if not emotional, material, students do not suspend rational choice, but rather, their decisions are judicious ones, flowing logically when errors do occur they result from an interruption of rational processes and reflect conflicts between competing goals rather than a switch to irrational decision processes.

Little (1972) found that students with high critical thinking ability were more imaginative, independent, stable emotionally, and trusting, but less conscientious than college students of low critical thinking ability (CT). Using a Personality Factor Questionnaire and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA), Little found differences in  personality characteristics between high CT and low CT males and females, but no difference between males and females on the WGCTA.

No sex differences in WGCTA scores were found by Hoogstraten and Christiaans (1975) and Gurfein (1977), but Simon and Ward (19?@) did find that males outperformed females. Gurfein found that the WGCTA scores of 270 intact families,
(comparing fathers to sons, mothers to daughters, fathers to daughters,  and mothers to sons) I correlated significantly, indicating that CT levels are similar by family.

O'Neill (1973) found that high school teachers were higher than their students in CT, and
open-mindedness (FM) as measured by the Rokeach Adult Dogmatism Scale (RADS). Yet Alston (1972) found that in teachers, years of teaching experience was negatively correlated with CT. This indicates that greater chronological age does not necessarily mean greater CT and that younger teachers may be getting more training in CT.


Index  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14